At European scale, Industrial Symbiosis is considered a potent instrument to support the achievement of environmental and industrial competitiveness goals, by applying the circular economy principles into the industrial input-output flows. Concretely, Industrial Symbiosis deals with the usage of waste resources or by-products of an industry or industrial process as a substitute to the traditionally used input resources of another industrial process. Thus, Industrial Symbiosis is a business strategy which stimulates collaboration between companies in order to generate new business opportunities based on these identified waste resources (whether the waste is in the form of energy, water, heat, transportation, materials, etc.). Consequently, when deployed, Industrial Symbiosis synergies reduce the amount of traditional input requirements from outside the industrial ecosystem, promoting a circular economy transition and a reduction of the overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
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